Most crimes committed by service members against local civilians are committed outside the service, [citation required] and are considered to be under local jurisdiction in accordance with the respective SOFA. Details about SOFAs can still cause problems. In Japan, for example, SOFA provides that service members are transferred to local authorities only when they are charged in court.  In a number of cases, local officials complained that this hindered their ability to interview suspects and investigate the crime. U.S. officials say Japanese police are using forced interrogation tactics and are working harder to get a high conviction rate than finding “justice.” The U.S. authorities also note the differences in the investigative powers of the police and the judiciary. No lawyer may be present at the investigative interviews in Japan, although a translator is available, and no equivalent to Miranda`s rights in the United States is mentioned. Another problem is the lack of jury trials in Japan, before 2009, all trials were decided by a judge or jury. Currently, Japan uses a system of lay judges in certain criminal proceedings. For these reasons, the US authorities insist that members of the service be brought to justice in military courts and oppose Article 98 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
 A sofa must clarify the conditions under which the foreign army can operate. As a general rule, purely military issues, such as base location and access to facilities, are covered by separate agreements. A SOFA focuses more on legal issues related to military individuals and property. This may include issues such as entry and exit, tax obligations, postal services or the employment conditions of nationals of the host country, but the most controversial issues are the civil and criminal competences of bases and staff. In civil matters, SOFS provides for how civilian damage caused by the armed forces is determined and paid for. Criminal issues vary, but the typical provision of the United States is that U.S. courts have jurisdiction over crimes committed either by a serving member against another serving member or by a serving member as part of his or her military duty, but the host country retains jurisdiction for other crimes.  Also be careful with brokers.
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